Tuesday, May 27, 2014


The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families
1.       https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSxua3nGuF8jerVgdjDMWA05iWBVRM-G2ONR2hKv6gtOn7m36e5Gwenn Schurgin O'Keeffe, MD
2.       Kathleen Clarke-Pearson, MD
3.       Council on Communications and Media
Using social media web sites is among the most common activity of today's children and adolescents. Any web site that allows social interaction is considered a social media site, including social networking sites such as: Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter; gaming sites and virtual worlds such as Club Penguin, Second Life, and the Sims; video sites such as YouTube; and blogs. Such sites offer today's youth a portal for entertainment and communication and have grown exponentially in recent years. For this reason, it is important that parents become aware of the nature of social media sites, given that not all of them are healthy environments for children and adolescents. Families are urged to understand these sites and to encourage healthy use and parents are urged to monitor for potential problems with cyberbullying, “Facebook depression,” sexting, and exposure to inappropriate content.
1.      In your experience would you agree with the authors’ statement in the first sentence? Explain your answer…
2.      Give three examples of social media sites.
3.      What is your favourite social media site. Give reasons.
4.      Why do the authors suggest that social media sites are so popular with adolesents? Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons.
5.      Parents are advised to be aware of social media sites. Why? Do  you agree/disagree?
6.      What specific problems are families urged to monitor for? What do you know of these problems?


Monday, May 26, 2014


Given that the simple definition of SATIRE is 'the use of ridicule to mock and expose, in particular, folly or falsity', analyse each cartoon in terms of this definition.

Examine each cartoon on the literal (what do you see?), inferential (what is the message?) and evaluative levels (what tools has the author used to send the message?).

The Australian, 26/5/2014

Behind the lines - the year's best political cartoons 2011

A P.E.E.L paragraph evaluating the above cartoon using the three levels of meaning.

POINT: This cartoon is an excellent example of satire using ridicule to expose a current issue in society. LITERAL MEANING: The Cox&Forcum cartoon has used the everyday situation of friends leaving the movie theatre after seeing a movie, one clutching a drink in his hand. INFERENTIAL MEANING: It is the movie itself, The Day After Tomorrow, Environment Apocolypse, that creates the central message for the reader, that environmental activists may be reaching their use-by date because of their flawed attitude to humanity. EVALUATION: The satirist assumes the viewer knows this movie with its apocalyptic ending - the end of the world. The humor is found through the symbolic T-shirts the friends are wearing - one proclaims 'Earth First' while the other states 'Green Peace'. Once again the satirist assumes that those reading this cartoon know that these are real-life names of environmental activist groups who fight people and groups who they believe are ruining the environment. Perhaps the Green Peace activist with his non-degradable drink container just adds irony to the situation of saving the earth. The use of reversal where both activists bemoaned the ending because 'the humans lived', creates a chuckle, while at the same time revealing the satirist's attitude towards environmental activist groups like those represented in the cartoon. By using a pun of the subtitle of the movie, 'Environmental Apocolypse', the satirist is suggesting that maybe environmental activists are coming to an end. The satirist is suggesting that deep down environmental activists hate human beings, seeing them as a problem that needs to be eliminated. The cartoonist obviously values human life above the environment, or perhaps sees that eliminating human beings won't solve the earth's problems. By the use of irony, the satirist has successfully sent a message to society that perhaps society needs to rethink environmental activists regarding their attitude to humanity.   

Friday, May 23, 2014


There are many animalistic references in the play. The easily-recognised denigrations that Iago uses when referring to Othello early in the play as a

Not so obvious is what happens after Desdemona's murder at the hand of Othello. Here Shakespeare uses allegory to show the depth of depravity that has taken place.

When Iago's schemes are at last exposed, Othello, finding it impossible for a moment to believe that a man could have contrived such evil, stares at Iago's feet and then says sadly, 'but that's a fable.' (Act 5, Scene 2).* What he hopes to find when he looks down are the cloven hoofs of the devil, and had they been there he would have been an actor in a morality play, tempted beyond his strength like many a man before him, by a supernatural power outside himelf.

The whole play can be seen a morality play, offering an allegorical journey between heaven and hell on a stage filled with purely symbolic figures.

But...Othello does not see the cloven hoofs when he looks down; he sees a pair of human feet at the end of a very human body; and Othello is forced to realise that far from living in some simplified 'fabulous' world where evil is a metaphysical power raiding human life from without, he dwells where evil is somehow inextricably woven with good into man himself. On this stage, however, the good angel does not return to heaven when defeated, but is murdered and her body remains on the bed, 'cold, cold.'

Shakespeare's plays are both allegorical and realistic at the same time. His characters are both recognisable men and at the same time devils, demigods, and forces in nature.

In Othello, Desdemona represents one particular human value, love or charity - no tragic flaw in her lead to her death. Her love and charity are shown in her actions, language and emotions. She is Shakespeare's word for love.  

*As though he were a judge, Lodovico calls Iago forth to stand beside his victim, Othello. Othello says of Iago, "I look down towards his feet; but that's a fable. / If that thou be'st a devil, I cannot kill thee" (5.2.286-287). Then he swings his sword at Iago, wounding him. The "fable" which Othello mentions is the one that says that devils have cloven feet. Because it's only a fable, Othello can't tell if Iago is a devil by looking at his feet, so he swings his sword at Iago, to see if he's human and can be killed. Othello's thought may seem strange, but we ought to remember that it wasn't too many minutes ago that Othello thought Iago the most honest man in the world. The transformation of Iago from honest friend to dishonest villain may easily seem devilishly unnatural.



Ironically, Iago is proving he is 'honest' Iago. He is filling Othello's mind with unfounded suspicions of his wife, Desdemona.

What does Othello's speech reveal about Othello's dilemma? How does he prevaricate?

If you're not familiar with this scene, go to the play and read it in context.

'By the world,
I think my wife be honest, and think she is not;
I think that thou art just, and think thou art not.
I'll have some proof. My name, that was as fresh
As Dian's* visage, is now begrimed and black
As mine own face. If there be cords, or knives,
Poison, or fire, or suffocating streams,
I'll not endure it. Would I were satisfied!'

*Diana - goddess of the moon and of chastity

Thursday, May 22, 2014


A description presents details about a person, object or situation.

The purpose for using description in your text is to make the reality of what or whom you are dealing with in your text very clear to your audience. It is a feature of both prose and poetry.

A poem is:

  • a form of literature
  • a text type which relies on the effective creation of images for its success
  • an expression of ideas and feelings in as few words as possible - it relies on economy of words
  • divided into lines and stanzas, not sentences and paragraphs
  • an experiment in using form or structure to reflect meaning
  • the positioning of words in lines to create a musical effect by rhythm and rhyme patterns
Prose is all forms of literature other than poetry - short story, novel and drama.

Some of the techniques of description (used in all prose and poetry etc) include:

  • similes
  • metaphors
  • personification
  • alliteration
  • assonance
  • onomatopoeia
  • symbolism
  • repetition
Go here for definitions of poetry terminology.

Description may be used to develop character or present a setting.

The following descriptive poem depicts Bondi Beach, a famous Australian tourist attraction in Sydney. This style of poetry imitates the brush techniques of impressionist painting. The techniques of descriptive writing are used to give momentary glimpses of the beach scene at a particular time. 

After you read Puzzling Bondi Beach, draw this table in your book and fill out the table.

Sense references:
·        Seeing
·        Hearing
·        Smelling
·        Textures
·        Tastes







Go here to read more poems about Bondi Beach. 

Monday, May 19, 2014


142766 600 The Affluenza Defense cartoons

CONSIDER this cartoon using the three levels...Literal, Inferential and Evaluative...

LITERAL meaning -- What do you see? Who's in the picture? What are they doing?

INFERENTIAL meaning -- What do you INFER (understand) from this picture? What message is the satirist conveying? 

EVALUATIVE meaning -- Write your full evaluation/analysis of this text. What tools of satire/art has the satirist used to convey his message? What is the main message the author is converying and how does he/she do this? How has the satirist used position, size, colour etc to underline his message to convey who is powerful, who is powerless, who is marginalised, who is foregrounded?

Thursday, May 15, 2014


The Merchant of Venice: A Comedy with No Laughs

Things that are written 100s of years ago can often lose or change meaning over time. This can be caused by many factors. The reader, the critic, the time period, and the context are all elements that can change the meaning or interpretation of a piece of literature every time it is read. The works of William Shakespeare are particularly susceptible to various interpretations because of their complexity and rich use of language. One particular example is The Merchant of Venice, a dark comedy about the downfalls of a Jew and the love of a friend in Venice. When written, Shakespeare lived in an Anti-Jew society that was able to laugh at the misfortunes of the Jew, Shylock, in the play. However in today's more understanding world, Shylock's story can be seen as tragic, not comedic. Because of this, the story of Shylock in The Merchant of Venice is no longer a dark comedy, but a huge tragedy when looked at in today's world.
In Elizabethan Europe, Jews were seen as the lowest class of society, and were discriminated against to extreme degrees. Around the 1000s Jews lived in Europe amongst everyone else,and did not live in ghettos. A Jew was often wealthy, and many became money lenders in their societies. Because of their jobs, they often had to be their own debt collectors as well. This led to much resentment against them, and the views on Jews were starting to turn negative. As time went on, these views became more religious. As it is stated by Jami Rogers, "In the late 12th century, preparation for the Third Crusade brought a heightened level of anti-Jewish sentiment. Anti-Semitic violence culminated in two massacres, one at the coronation of Richard I in 1189, when 30 Jews were killed, and the other in 1190 in the city of York, when 150 Jews were massacred." (Rogers 2) The resentment of activity by a small concentrated amount of Jews began to spread to the religious group as a whole as the Third Crusade approached.
Jews were also extradited from society together, much like black people in early America. Jews were seen as inferior to other religions, mainly Christians. They were even seen as less than human to an extent. Jews were regularly insulted, mistreated, and all around hated all because of there religion. This anti-Jew nature brought about many laws against them, such as if a man in debt dies, his family does not have to pay off the Jew. This and many other laws were forged in order to lessen the Jew's power in society. As Mr. Stirling says;"It is clear that the Jews were persecuted, demonized, and murdered in England up until the expulsion of 1290. That persecution was based on both religious grounds and upon the position that the Jews held in the financial structure of the society."(Stirling 1) Jews were also extradited from society together, much like black people in early America. Jews were seen as inferior to other religions, mainly Christians. They were even seen as less than human to an extent. These laws ultimately culminated in the banishment of Jews from all of England in 1290, only 15 years after they were banned from lending money. As Rogers further explains, "After the Expulsion, the English view of Jews began to be formed by several myths that grew in popularity through the centuries." (Rogers 2) These myths included their lust for ritual murder, their greed, and their love for money. Even though Shakespeare never met a Jew in his life because of their banishment, their history and myths provided the context for what many consider the main aspect of the play.
The Merchant of Venice reflects the context in which it was written in many ways. In The Merchant of Venice Jews were separated from the main part of society, lived in ghettos, were gravely mistreated and hated, and lived out some of the biggest stereotypes that were laid upon their kind. Like in real life the Jews in the play live in a ghetto, separated from the rest of society. This was common in many towns around Europe. If the Jews were not completely banished from the country, they were segregated into their own little towns so that the "normal" citizens did not have to interact with them on a regular bases. The character of Shylock is also greatly based on context. Because Shakespeare never met a Jew, he based the character on many myth's. As Kirschbaum says, "Shakespeare's source for Shylock was not life but literature and folklore. In them the Jew was typed as an anti-Christian, usurious, cruel monster. This is the stereotyped figure which Shakespeare utilized for Shylock." (Kirschbaum 2) During the time, Jews were seen as money hungry mongrels, willing to do anything for wealth. Throughout the play Shylock displays these qualities, crying over his loss of wealth every some some is taken away from him. He also tries to commit a "ritualistic murder", an action linked to Jews in that period.
Shylock can be seen as greedy, grumpy, and always worrying about his money, all Jewish stereotypes. He definitely does not shy away from some of the stereotypes, even to the point of embracing some of them. This was most likely a decision made by Shakespeare in order to familiarize the character to his audience. They would most likely not understand or enjoy a Jewish character that did not have any of the qualities that they associated with Jews. Also throughout the play, Shylock is mistreated, much like in real life. For example, in Act 1, Scene 3, Antonio says, "mark you this Bassanio, The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose." (I.iii.93-94) He is calling Shylock evil, comparing him to the devil and his ability to manipulate the bible to prove his points. The insults do not stop here. Later in the play, Gratiano calls Shylock an "inexecrable dog."(IV.i.128) He is saying that Shylock is no more than an animal in the wild, a true insult. These are just two examples of the many insults Shylock faces in the play all because of his religion. These insults show the influence of context on the play because in real life during this period Jews were exposed to this same verbal abuse, and much worse. Shakespeare put the insults in the play because some members of the audience would likely insult a Jew the same way if they saw ever one. The Merchant of Venice reflects almost every aspect of society at the time, whether it be the Jews segregation, stereotypes placed on Jews, or abuse of Jews in every way. But even with this great amount context behind the play, some critics still think the play uses the context as a subplot, and that the main story of the play is a romantic comedy.
The downfall of Shylock is sometimes seen as a subplot to the main story of love and hardships between two young Christians. The issue between Antonio and Shylock only arises because Bassanio, Antonio's young friend, needs money in order to go and win the hand of a young bride to be, Portia. After he has won her hand in marriage, much confusion and "comedy" follow as Bassanio tries to get Antonio out of his bond with Shylock. The "comedic elements" of the play come near the end, after Portia has dressed as a man and saved Antonio. Still dresses as a man, she asks for a reward from Bassanio. Portia tells Bassanio, "That 'scuse serves many men to save their gifts, An if your wife be not a madwoman, And know how well I have deserved the ring, She would not hold out enemy forever, For giving it to me. Well peace be with you. ( IV.i.441-445) This is seen as comedic because Portia is convincing Bassanio to give a stranger the ring that she herself made him promise to never give up. This leads to a "comedic" conversation and resolution about love at the end of the play. Many people see this love story as the main plot of the play, and because it is a comedic romance, the play was and is sometimes still classified as a "romantic comedy" and not a tragedy. One such critic is Samuel Ajzenstat, who still sees and appreciates the romantic comedy overtone of the play. In his criticism entitled The Ubiquity of Contract in The Merchant of Venice, he states,
"But the rejection of idealistic account does not make The Merchant a
cynical play. It remains a romantic comedy because it shows that love
does not require the myth of its invulnerability and all-conquering po-
wer to remain meaningful both in the her-and-now and as a pointer to
something beyond it." (Ajzenstat 262)
Ajzenstat says the play is still a comedy because its main story is about true love is not shown by some of the myths of invulnerability, but by staying truthful to your significant other. Portia and Bassanio do this by confessing their mistakes and deceptions at the end of the play, resolving the play in happiness for those two much like all of Shakespeare's comedies. Modern renditions of the play have even given it a "comic gloss", focusing more on the love story and adding jokes to make the play more lighthearted. Many feel that the story of Shylock was put into the play as a way to keep the play from getting too "sweet" because every one of Shakespeare's plays has some "dark" aspect to it. When you look up the plays genre, it is also classified under the comedy category. But even with these changes, some critic's show a completely different view on the play, downplaying its comedic elements.
Today, some critics no longer see The Merchant of Venice as a comedy of any sort, but as the tragedy of Shylock the Jew. Much of the play revolves around Shylock, who is a successful money lender in Venice until he gets into a bond with the Merchant Antonio. By the end of the play, Shylock is a man broken and with nothing of his own. He has lost his religion, his estate, and his daughter in what is a truly tragic downfall. Despite these qualities of the play, when it was written it was seen as a comedy because of the context it was written in. The anti-Jew society was able to laugh at the misfortunes of the Jew, applauding his failure in taking a Christian's life. The people were able to laugh at the misfortunes of a character that had a religion they were taught to hate. This led the play to be seen as a dark comedy during Elizabethan times. However, recent interpretations of the play by critics have noted the play as being more tragic than comedic, mostly because we are not in an anti-Jew society today. Today's society, especially in America, is more understanding. We all come from different backgrounds, and the majority of us can understand the religions and practices of others, and don't hate them because of what they do or worship. One of these critics, Alvin Klein says that "The play is not a comedic read, and it is rarely played for laughs," (Klein 1) He is noting that audiences do not laugh anymore when reading or watching the play. He also states, "It is a disconnected, troubling, irreconcilable play that proves festival audiences want to think and argue." (Klein 4)
Klein once again notes the audience that is interpreting the play. He says that today's society isn't one that feeds on what is given to them like the theater goers of old. Today's audience digest and think about the play, instead of mindlessly laugh at Shylock's misfortunes. This has lead many new critics to classify this play under "tragedy" or some, such as Leo Kirschbaum, classify it as a "tragicomedy." (Kirschbaum 1) These critics are correct in classifying it as a tragedy. The story of Shylock seems a take a major leading role in the play. It is referred to and seen more than the romance scenes, and the main plot of the play is the interaction between Shylock and Antonio. The comedic elements do now arise enough to classify it as a dark comedy. Instead, the tragic elements are ubiquitous, with someone always mentioning the bond between the merchant and the bondsman. The story of Shylock is clearly the main plot of the play, and to say that romantic-comedic elements that show up very scarcely throughout the play are the main story would be ridiculous When it was written, audiences were amused by the falling of the Jew. They hated Jews in every way and would do anything to see a Jew fail in life. But in today's world the play is seen as a disgusting tragedy full of wrongful mistreatment, allowing it to be labeled as such because it no longer provides laughs to the audience or the reader.
When first debuted to the world in Elizabethan England, The Merchant of Venice was a play that the audience saw as comedic. They were able to laugh at a crazy love story, and more importantly they were able to laugh at the downfall of a hated Jew, Shylock. This laughter was considered OK because that the time, Jews were evil, they were the worst things walking the Earth according to the general public, and the play was written in that context. But in today's more understanding and less prejudice world, much debate has come over the play's comedic value. Because we know longer live in a Jew hating world for the most part, the play is now seen as tragedy by many because of Shylock's terrible downfall in the story. Other critics still see it as a sort of comedy, but it is clear that the laugh factor in the play is now non-existent. This play has become a prime example to show that as the context in which a work of literature is read changes, so can its interpretations and meanings.

Works Cited
- Ajzenstat, Samuel "The Ubiquity of Contract in The Merchant of Venice" Philosophy and Literature - Volume 21, Number 2, October 1997, pp. 262-278 The Johns Hopkins University Press
- Kirschbaum, Leo. "Shylock in the City of God." Wayne State University Press (1962): 7-32. Literature Resource Center. LEO. New York Public Library, New York. Keyword: Shakespeare.
- Klein, Alvin. "The Arguable Comedy in Merchant of Venice." The New York Times 5 Nov. 2000, sec. NJ11. Literature Resource Center. LEO. New York Public Library, New York. 20 Nov. 2006. Keyword: Shakespeare.
- Rogers, Jami. "The Merchant of Venice." PBS. 1997. 12 Nov. 2006 .
- Stirling, Grant. "Shakespeare and Anti-Semitism: The Question of Shylock." February 1997. 12 Jan. 2007
- Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice. New York: SparkNotes, 2003.


Here is an example of an essay on Othello. Please note, it is not written in the modern PEEL style of analytical essay, but nevertheless, has some good points which may be helpful in your exam.

It deals with the characters, Iago, Othello, Desdemona, Cassio.
Written in 1604, Othello is one of Shakespeare's most highly concentrated, tightly constructed tragedies, with no subplots and little humour to relieve the tension. Othello is one of Shakespeare's four great tragedies and is unique among these tragedies. Unlike Hamlet, King Lear, and Macbeth, which are set against a backdrop of affairs of state and which reverberate with suggestions of universal human concerns, Othello is set in a private world and focuses on the passions and personal lives of its major figures. Indeed, it has often been described as a "tragedy of character"; Othello's swift descent into jealousy and rage and Iago's dazzling display of villainy have long fascinated students and critics of the play. The relationship between these characters is another unusual feature of Othello. With two such prominent characters so closely associated, determining which is the central figure in the play and which bears the greater responsibility for the tragedy is difficult.
More than anything else, what distinguishes Othello from its great tragedies' peers is the role of its villain, Iago, whose diabolical role is confusing to say the least. What motivates this character to bring about the downfall of the main characters? Iago is a character who essentially writes the play's main plot, takes a key part in it, and gives first-hand direction to the others, most notably to the noble Moor, Othello. The play presents us with two remarkable characters, Iago and his victim, with Iago as the dominant force that causes Othello to see the infidelity of his young and beautiful wife, Desdemona, with his favourite lieutenant, Michael Cassio. Indeed, not only is "seeing" and the gap between appearance and reality a central theme of the play, it overlaps with other major thematic strands (trust, honour, and reputation) and sheds light on still others, including the theme of patriarchy and the political state. Shakespeare related almost every incident directly to the development of Iago's schemes and Othello's escalating fears. This structure heightens the tragedy's ominous mood and makes the threat to both Desdemona's innocence and the love she and Othello share more terrifying.
Although narrow in scope, Othello, with its intimate domestic setting, is widely regarded as the most moving and the most painful of Shakespeare's great tragedies. The fall of a proud, dignified man, the murder of a graceful, loving woman, and the unreasoning hatred of a "motiveless" villain—all have evoked fear and pity in audiences throughout the centuries. It possesses a power that is perhaps more immediate and strongly felt for operating on the personal, human plane.


I have edited the full essay.


WRITING AN ANALYTICAL ESSAY ON 'THE MERCHANT OF VENICE' using PEEL structure: go here to learn more about this structure.

Considering most exam questions require approximately 600 - 700 words, break it down something like this -

INTRODUCTION - 150 words
BODY PARAGRAPHS - 150 words each
CONCLUSION - 70 words


Shakespeare wrote many romantic comedies which usually followed a formula. How did he use characterization and conflict in The Merchant of Venice to follow his common theme of 'love overcoming all obstacles'?

INTRODUCTION: (This is what you're going to do...)

C - Context
T - Thesis
A - Argument/s

BODY PARAGRAPHS: - This is how you do it...

P - Main Point of paragraph
E - Further explanation of main point
E - Example/s, Evidence - QUOTE/S
L (3 times) - Linking sentence - link to thesis and next paragraph opening sentence

CONCLUSION: - This is how you've done it...

T - Revisit thesis
A - Summarise your arguments
G - General statement about the question

CONTEXT: (Use some of this information in the INTRODUCTION - background information, opening to essay). Maybe first two sentences.

The Merchant of Venice is one of Shakespeare's romantic comedies, probably written between 1594 and 1596, and forming one of a group of such comedies - Two Gentlemen of Verona, As You Like It and Twelfth Night. Romantic comedy was a popular and much-performed type in the Elizabethan theatre: certain characters and situations, and a certain kind of plot development were conventional and expected by the audience. The chief element and central motive was love - besides the hero and heroine there were often two and even three subsidiary couples who are in love. In Merchant of Venice we have Portia and Bassanio in the centre, flanked by two other couples, Jessica and Lorenzo, and Nerissa and Gratiano. The comic elements used by Shakespeare often include disguise, through situations, by wit (usually the heroine is cleverer than the men in the play), and by a clown (often providing farce).

All drama, however, must have conflict. In romantic comedy the conflict is between the lovers on one hand and some barrier to the fulfillment of their love on the other. This barrier may take the form of social rule, a parent, or any combination of things which initially prevent the course of true love running smooth. In The Merchant of Venice the barrier is Shylock's hold over Antonio, which in turn involves his friend Bassanio. The plot of the play consists simply in overcoming the barrier, bringing about a celebration at the end, often several celebrations in the form of marriage.


Shakespeare's romantic comedies are in many ways related to the older medieval and Renaissance romances - stories in which the everyday world of cause and effect is suspended and where, as in fairy stories, we are not meant to worry over the plausibility of events and situations. The Merchant of Venice has much of this romantic quality - the suitor who seeks the hand of the princess has to pass a mysterious test to win it.

THESIS: Highlight KEYWORDS. Answer the question. Turn it around. What do you think?

THREE ARGUMENTS: There are three couples in this play. Perfect. A Body Paragraph on each - not all equal - more space given to Portia and Bassiano, the main couple.

While you are learning how to write an Analytical Essay, it may help to color code your INTRODUCTION like this to make sure you have included everything:

YELLOW - broad statement on the topic
BROWN - general statement on the topic
GREEN - plot summary
PINK - thesis
 BLUE - arguments (3) using characters (3)

Friday, May 2, 2014



Iago's capacity for cruelty seems limitless, and no motivation for his actions seems enough to explain the incredible destruction he wreaks on the lives of the people he knows best. Is Iago pure evil?


Evil has nowhere been portrayed with such mastery as in the character of Iago.


Iago is a being who hates good simply because it is good, and loves evil purely for itself. His motives spring from a 'motiveless malignancy', or a disinterested delight in the pain of others. Othello, Desdemona and Cassio are scarcely more than the material requisite for the full attainment of this delight.